# 第二章 英语科技论文的文体特点

## 2.1 词汇特点

• 纯科技词汇。如diode（二极管）、database（数据库）等。

• 通用科技词汇。如power在机械力学中词义为“力”、“电”、“电力”、“动力”、“电源”、“功率”的等，在数学中为“乘方”、“次方”、“幂”。feed一词有“馈电”、“供水”、“输送”、“进刀”等意。

• 普通词汇专业化

• 合成词。如software（软件）、hoursepower（马力）等。

• 混成词。如comsat（通信卫星）、hi-tech（高新技术）等。

• 派生词。如前缀hydro-，hyper-，hypo-，inter-等。

• 缩略词。如IC（integrated circuit）集成电路、AI（artificial intelligence）人工智能

• 语体正式词。动词短语宜用与之对应的、意义明确地单个词的动词。如：

use up exhaust 耗尽 push into insert 插入，嵌入
throw back reflecct 反映，反射 put in add 加，增加
carry out perform 执行，完成 think about consider 考虑
get rid of eliminate 消除，排除 take away remove 移动，迁移，调动
get together concentrate 集中，浓缩 fill up occupy 占据，占领
keep up maintain 维持，继续 hang up suspend 延缓，推迟

finish complete 完成 underwater submarine 水下的
buy purchase 购买 enough sufficient 足够的
similar identical 同一的，完全相同的 handbook manual 手册，指南
careful cautious 谨慎的，小心的 help assist 帮助，促进
try attempt 企图，试图 get obtain 获得
about approximately 大约，近似地 use utilize 利用

## 2.2 句法特点

• 较多使用被动语态

• 较多使用非谓语动词（分词、动名词、动词不定式及其复合结构）。例如：

• Compared with DoD’s plan, the options would yield greater improvemnets in reception and would yield improvements sooner.

• A theoretical framework is provided, consisting of negative reinforcing feedback loops that act as drivers behind future industry change.

• 大量使用名词化结构（主要是用具有动词意义的名词+of+修饰词）

• 非人称句使用频繁（第三人称作主语的矩句子）

# 第三章 英语科技论文的语言表达技巧和常见错误

## 3.1 如何提高语言的准确性

• 选用具体的表达，避免抽象的表达。例如：

• a1：Our experimenntal data are not precise because the devices are in poor condition.（含糊）

• a2：Our experimenntal data are not precise because the devices are not working properly.（具体）

• b1:The results seem to be satisfactory.（含糊）

• b2:We are satisfied with the result that $L(X2, X3)=0$. （具体）

• 选用较为正式的动词

• 区别易混淆词、同义词和近义词。例如：

• The first result was obtained after approximately four minutes.句中的approximately与about, around, roughly都表示“大约大概”的意思，但approximately比其他词更准确。

• 近义词举例：’consist of’用主动语态，而compose的用法是“整体+be composed of+组成部分”：

• a1:This process consists of the translation, reconstruction, and interpretation of three basic elements of the application.

• a2:Java applications are composed of one or more class files, one file per class.

• 避免使用引起歧义的词语

## 3.2 如何提高语言的简洁性

### 3.2.1 使用短语代替从句

1、 名词短语代替从句。名词短语可以替代状语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、主语从句、同位语从句。

• If the temperature of engines decreases dramatically, the fuel consumption of automobiles will increase.（条件状语从句可以简化为：A dramatic decrease in the tenperature of engines will result in an increase in the fuel consumption of automobiles.）

• Note that the result is accurate. （宾语从句可以简化为：Note the accuracy of the result.）

• One of the advantages of the machines is that they are small in size. （表语从句可以简化为：One of the advantages of the machine is their small size.）

• To resolve the problem that malicious software load more and more harm to computer system, SRN mechanism is put forward. （同位语从句及其先行词可以简化为：To resolve the increasing harm of malicious software on computer system, SRN machanism is put forward.）

• The value is the highest in the experiment. （可以简化为：The experiment has the highest value.）

• Check Mate is a program analysis framework for Java. It uses Jchord to instrument lock acquires and releases. （两句话可以合并为：Check Mate, a program analysis framework for Java, uses Jchord to instrument lock acquires and releases.）

2、 形容词短语代替从句。形容词短语不仅可以充当定语，有事还可以替代从句表示原因、状态或补充说明。

• The satellites which are capable of transmitting M-code signals were already in orbit as of August 2011. （定语从句可以简化为：Ten satellites capable of transmitting M-code signals were already in orbit as of August 2011.）

3、 副词短语替代从句

• As far as the theory and computation are concerned, material anisotropy and layering pose great challenges. （状语从句可以简化为：Material anisotropy and layering pose great challenges both theoretically and computationally.）

4、 介词短语代替从句

• It’s a simple and scalable protocol, which performs well for average-case loads and operating conditions. （非限制性定语从句可简化为：with good performance for average-case loads and operating conditions）

• The communication interface should be rather simple to implement. It dosen’t need specialized communication controllers. （第二句可简化为：without specialized communication controllers）

5、 分词短语代替从句。现在分词表示主动含义，过去分词表示被动含义。

• This paper gives an overview of GRASP, and also describes its basic components and enhancements to the basic procedure. （并列动词可简化为：describing its basic components and enhancements to the basic procedure）

• From the class of protocols that is triggered by event, the controller area network bus is used in many automotive applications. （定语从句可简化为：From the eventtriggered class of protocols,…）

6、 动名词短语替代从句。动名词短语可以替代主语从句、宾语从句，作介词宾语可以替代状语从句，有时也可以吧并列句简化为简单句。

• You can transmit F three times clearly, but it doesn’t do the trick. （并列句可简化为：Transmitting F three times clearly doesn’t do the trick.）

7、 不定式短语替代从句，不定式短语经常用来替代目的状语。

### 3.2.2 变后置定语为前置定语

• There was a choice that can not be avoided between privacy and user-desired functionality. （后置定语可简化为：There was an unavoidable choice between privacy and user-desired functionality.）

### 3.2.3 使用省略手段

1、 省略谓语

• Scheme 1 got the highest average while Scheme 2 got the lowest. （Scheme 1 got the highest average while Scheme 2 the lowest.）

2、 省略从句中部分成分

• When used without a recovery service, Carburizer identifies bugs for a programmer to fix. （省略了it is）

• When confronted with real devices that misbehave, these assumptions can lead to driver or system failures. （省略了thay are）

3、 利用缩略词

4、 简化习语和词组

aimed at for inasmuch as since
a number of several in regard to about
in all cases always in order that to
in moast cases usually in the event that if
in the nature of like not infrequently often
for the purpose of for in the vicinity of near
in connection with about in spite of the fact that although
it may well be that perhaps on a regular basis regularly
with the result that so bring to a consideration consider
afford an opportunity to allow in conjunction with with
after this has been done then the question as to whether whether
it is therefore apparent that hence in view of the foregoing statement therefore
in view of the fact that…/on account of the fact that …/owing to the fact that … seeing that/because/since it’s evident that… evidently…
it would appear that… apparently … it is clear that … clearly

## 3.3 如何提高语义的连贯性

### 3.3.1 使用连词

• 表示时间和顺序关系：after, before, first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), last(ly), then, in the first place, to begin with, next, finally, later, afterwards, meanwhile, in the mean time, in the past, at present, presently, ultimately, recently

• 表示空间关系：here, there, nearby, under, below, in front of, in the middle of, at the back of, on the top of, at the bottom of

• 表示递增关系：and, also, in addition,additionally, besides, further, furthermore, moreover, what is more

• 表示转折关系：however, nevertheless, but, although, yet, while, in spite of, instead, now that, whereas

• 表示相似关系：similarly, equally, likewise, in the same way, in a like manner

• 表示对比关系：in contrast, alternately, on the contrary, not…but…

• 表示因果关系：since, because, as a result, due to, thanks to, for this reason, therefore, consequently, accordingly, thus, so, hence

• 表示让步关系：however, nevertheless, though, on the other hand, yet, still, in any case, after all, anyway

• 表示列举或重复诉述内容：for example, for instance, such as, namely, in other words, that is to say, that is, e.g., i.e., as before, as has been stated, as discudded previously, again, in review, as shown in Fig.2, to reiterate

• 表示总结：in conclusion, to sumup, in short, in a word, in brief, briefly speaking, on the whole

### 3.3.3 使用主从结构

• a1: So instead of enlarging the line size, we choose to implemnet a fetch size. It is different from thr line size.

• a2: So instead of enlarging the line size, we choose to implemnet a fetch size which is different from thr line size.

### 3.3.4 使用平行结构

• The SMART-3D architecture achieves speedups from 1.53 to 2.14 over planar designs and from 1.27 to 1.72 over prior 3D designs.（介词短语平行）

• Therefore, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to compute them both accurately and efficiently.（副词平行）

## 3.4 英语科技论文中的常见错误

### 3.4.1 数

1、 不规则变化的名词单复数

criterion criteria 标准
phenomenon phenomena 现象
medium media 介质
index indices 指数
appendix appendices 附录
stimulus stimuli 刺激
basis bases 基础
synthesis syntheses 合成
matrix matrices 矩阵

2、 一些特殊的名词

data通常作复数名词，而research、work是不可数名词

3、 主谓一致

one of 复数名词 + 单数动词

none of 复数名词 + 单数动词

none of 单数名词/不可数名词 + 单数动词

no 复数名词 + 复数动词

a kind of 单数名词 + 单数动词

this/that kind of 单数名词 + 单数动词

these kind of 复数名词 + 复数动词

a type of 单数名词 + 单数动词

a series of 复数名词 + 复数动词

the number of 复数名词 + 单数动词

a number of 复数名词 + 复数动词

4、 后面通常用复数名词的词

variois，most，all，many，several， one of， many of， kinds of， a number of， the number of， a（wide）variety of， a class of， a series of， a wide range of

5、 修饰可数名词和不可数名词的量词

• 修饰可数名词的量词有：a few of，many，a number of

• 修饰不可数名词的量词有：a great/small/certain amount of，agreat/good deal of

• 修饰可数和不可数名词均可的量词有：a lot of，lots of

6、 以下结构中谓语的数

• 由靠近谓语动词的名词或代词来决定谓语的数的短语有：not only……but also……， either……or……， neither……nor……

• as well as 谓语动词往往用复数

### 3.4.2 冠词

• 第一次出现或表示泛指的单数名词前一般要加不定冠词a/an

• 有修饰词的、特指的或再次出现的单数名词前一般要加定冠词the，但有些情况可以不加

• 无特指或无修饰词的复数名词前不加定冠词the，特指的或被修饰的复数名词前一般加the

### 3.4.3 谓语动词与非谓语动词

• 动名词：由动词原形加后缀ing构成，可做主语、宾语和表语，与介词构成的介词短语（如in/on/without + doing）可做定语、状语

• 现在分词：由动词原形+ing构成，可做定语、补语和状语，表示主动、正在进行的含义

• 过去分词：由动词原形+ed构成（规则动词），可做定语、补语，少部分可做状语（如Given……），表示被动的含义

• 不定式：由动词原形前加to构成，可做主语、宾语、定语、补语和目的状语，表示将来、目的性含义

# 第六章 表格、插图、数学公式的撰写

## 一、插图的英文表达

• figure，通常指几何图形或图案，不管什么图都可以用figure表示。
• diagram，用于一般的图形、图表
• graph，一般用于指曲线图、标绘图
• plot，往往可以与graph互换
• view，一般用于机械图或各种结构图中的各向视图
• profile，一般只零部件的外形轮廓图，剖面形状图，也可以指各种分布图
• pattern，指图型、图案、花纹等
• drawing，主要用于各种工程图纸及有关工程设计的附图、插图
• chart，多用于航线图和某种方向的图
• map，地图、天体图、布局图及一些专用图形
• sketch，一般指粗略勾画的示意图、草图
• layout，着重于被描述对象的总体概貌，外形轮廓，总体安排和设计
• line，一般仅用于线条描绘的轮廓和外形图
• scheme，草图，示意图

## 二、图表的描述语言

### 1、图表的指示

• As shown in Table 1
• … is shown in Table 1
• Table 1 shows that…
• Each methods is proved to be effective(Table 1)

### 2、描述变化或趋势常用词

• 描述一般变化：
to go up (a little) to go down (a little)
Nouns Verbs Nouns Verbs
an increase to increase a decrease to decrease
a rise to rise a fall to fall (off)
a growth to grow a drop to drop
an improvement to improve a decline to decline
an upturn a dowmturn
to go up to go down
to slip
an upward a downward trend
• 描述剧烈变化：
to go up (a lot) to go down (a lot)
Nouns Verbs Nouns Verbs
a surge to surge to plummet
an upsurge a plunge to plunge
to take off a slump to slump
to shoot up a crash to crash
to soar to sink
to rocket a tumble to bumble
a leap to leap
• 描述变化结果
no change change of direction
downward upward
to remain stable to peak
to level off to reach a peak to reach a low point
to stay at the same level to top out to recover
to remain constant to rebound
to stagnate to revive
to stabilise
• 描述变化速度
to describe the speed of change
an abrupt rise or fall to rise or fall abruptly
a sudden suddenly
rapid rapidly
quick quickly
slow slowly
• 描述变化程度
to describe the degree of change
a dramatic rise of fall to rise or fall dramatically
considerable considerably
sharp sharply
significant significantly
substantial substantially
moderate moderately
slight slightly

### 3、描述图表的套句

• The table shows the changes in the number of … over the period from … to …改表格描述了在…年至…年间…数量的变化
• The graph provides some interesting data regrading … 该图为我们提供了有关…的有趣数据
• The diagram /bar chart/pie graph/tree diagram/data/figures/statistics … show(s)/illustrate(s)/depict(s) that…该图/数据…向我们展示/揭示/表明了…
• This is a cure graph which describes the trend of … 这个曲线描述了…的趋势
• The data /statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that…从数据中，我们得出…
• As is shown/demonstrated/exhibited in the diagram/graph/chart/table … 如图所示…
• According to the chart/figures…根据这些表格（数字）…
• As is shown in the table…如表格所示
• As can be seen from the diagram, great changes have taken place in … 从图中可以看出，…发生了巨大变化
• From the table/chart/diagram/figure, we can see clearly that … or, It is clear/apparent from the chart that…从图表中我们可以清楚看到
• This table shows the changing proportion of a & b from … to 该表格描述了 ……年到……年间a与b的比例关系
• The graph presented in a pie chart shows the general trend in … 该图形以饼状图描述了…总的趋势
• This is a column chart showing … 这是个柱状图，描述了……
• As can be seen from the graph, the two curves show the fluctuation of …如图所示，两条曲线描述了……的波动情况
• Over the period from … to…, the …remained level. 在……至……期间，……基本不变
• in the year between… and …在……年间到……期间
• in the 4 years spanning from 1995 through 1998… 在1995至1998四年里
• From then on/from this time onwards… 从那时起
• The number of … remained steady/stable from (month/year) to (month/year) ……至……的数量基本不变
• The number sharply went up to… 数字急剧上升至……
• The percentage of … stayed the same between … and … ……至……期间……的比率维持不变
• The figures peaked at … in (month/year) … ……的数目在……达到顶点，为……
• The percentage remained steady at … 比率维持在……
• The percentage of … is slightly larger/smaller than that of … ……的比例比……的比例略高（低）
• There is not a great deal of different between … and … ……与……的区别不大
• The graphs show a threefold increase in the number of … 该图表表明……的数目增长了三倍
• …decreased year by year while … increased steadily ……逐年减少，而……逐步增加
• The situation reached a peak (a high point at) of …% ……的情况达到顶（高）点，为……百分点
• The figures.situation bottomed out in … 数字（情况）在……达到底部
• The figures reached the bottom/a low point/hit a trough. 数字（情况）达到底部（低谷）
• a is … times as much /many as b. a是b的……倍
• a increased by/to … a增长了/到……
• The difference between a and b lies in … a与b之间的差别在于……
• …(year) witnessed/saw a sharp rise in … ……年……急剧上升
• The number of … rose steadily, whereas/while that of … fell slightly. ……的数量不断上升，而……的数量不断下降

## 三、数学公式的搭配用语

let
if

there exists…
that is; i.e.; which means…

x为 x is…; x denotes…

## 四、数学公式的英文读法

$\exists$: there exists
$\forall$: for all
$p \implies q$: p implies q / if p, then q
$q \iff p$: p if and only if q / p is eqivalent to q / p and q are equivalent
$x \in A$: x belongs to A / x is an element(ora member) of A
$x \notin A$: x does not belong to A / x is not an element(or a member) of A
$A \subset B$: A is contained in B / A is a subset of B
$A \supset B$: A contains B / B is a subset of A
$A \bigcap B$: A cap B / A meet B / A intersection B
$A \bigcup B$: A cup B / A join B / A union B
$A \backslash B$: A minus B / the difference between A and B
$A \times B$: A cross B / the cartesian product of A and B
$x \equiv y$: x is equivalent to(or identical with) y
$x > y$: x is greater than y
$x \geq y$: x is greater than or equal to y
$x < y$: x is less than y
$x \leq y$: x is less than equal to y
$0<x<1$: zero is less than x is less than one
$0 \leq x \leq 1$: zero is less than or equal to x is less than or euqal to 1
$|x|$: mod x / modulus x
$x^{2}$: x squared / x(raised) to the power 2
$x^{3}$: x cubed
$x^{4}$: x to the fourth / x to the power four
$x^{n}$: x to the nth/ x to the power n
$x^{-n}$: x to the (power) minus n
$\sqrt{x}$: (square) root x / the square root of x
$\sqrt[3]{x}$: cube root (of) x
$\sqrt[4]{x}$: fourth root (of) x
$\sqrt[n]{x}$: nth root (of) x
$(x+y)^{2}$: x plus y all squared
$\left(\frac{x}{y} \right)^{2}$: x over y all squared
$f:S \to T$: a function f from S to T
$x \mapsto y$: x maps to y / x is sent (or mapped) to y
$f \prime (x)$: f prime x / f dash x / the (first) derivative of f with respect to x
$f \prime \prime (x)$: f double-prime x / f double-dash x / the second derivative of f with respect to x
$f \prime \prime \prime (x)$: f triple-prime x / f triple-dash x / the third derivative of f with respect to x
$f^{(4)}(x)$: f four x / the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
$\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_{1}}$: the partial (derivative) of f with respect to $x_{1}$
$\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_{1}^{2}}$: the second partial (derivative) of f with respect to $x_{1}$
$\int_{0}^{\infty}$: the integral from zero to infinity
$\lim_{n \to 0}$: the limit as x approaches zero
$\lim_{n \to +0}$: the limit as x approaches zero from above
$\lim_{n \to -0}$: the limit as x approaches zero from below
$\log _{e}y$:log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y
$\ln y$:log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y